CANADIAN COLONIAL AIRWAYS. Founded in Montreal in 1929 and ceased operation in 1942 when it was reformed as Colonial Airlines, an American airline later absorbed by Eastern Air Lines.
CANADIAN AIRWAYS. Established in 1926 by James Richardson to serve the Canadian Northwest. In 1930 it became Canadian Airways Limited with a view to becoming a na-tional airline relying predominately on government Air Mail contracts. Richardson was double-crossed by C.D. Howe when Howe established Trans-Canada Air Lines as a gov-ernment airlline in 1937.
CANADIAN PACIFIC AIR LINES. Created in 1942 by Sir Edward Beatty, president of the CPR, as competition for TCA, the government airline. Canadian Airways Limited was folded into this new airline, along with others. The airline operated from 1942 to 1987, but in its last 19 years it was called CP AIR.
TRANS-CANADA AIR LINES. Establilshed by C. D. Howe as a Candian government airline in 1937 as a subsidiry of the Canadian National Railray, with whom it competed for customers, although its primary income at first came from mail contracts with the Post Office. Jean Chretien changed the name to AIR CANADA starting in 1965. In 1978 it be-came a crown corporation on its own until it was privatized in 1989.